Since the beginning of the industrialisation around 1870, Luxembourg has witnessed strong population growth.
This can largely be explained by steady immigration since the late 19th century. In 1900, Luxembourg had nearly 200,000 inhabitants; today, the residential population of Luxembourg is more than 576,000.
But this increase has not been steady and involves four major periods:
- a period of decline during the first four decades of the 20th century;
- a (moderate) baby boom between 1950 and 1960;
- a very rapid decline, which stabilised between 1960 and 1980;
- a resumption of growth since the 1990s due to higher birth rates and a rise in immigration associated with a favourable economic situation.
Between 1980 and 2010, the resident population increased by about 147,000 people. This population growth is rather exceptional as it is mainly due to immigration. However, nationals saw their numbers stagnate.