The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a representative democracy in the form of a constitutional monarchy, with hereditary succession in the Nassau family.
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has been an independent sovereign state since the Treaty of London was signed on 19 April 1839. This parliamentary democracy has one particularity: it is currently the only Grand Duchy in the world.
The organisation of the Luxembourg State is based on the principle that the functions of the different powers have to be spread between different organs. As in many other parliamentary democracies, the separation of powers is flexible in Luxembourg. Indeed, there are many relationships between the executive and legislative powers although the judiciary remains completely independent.
Together with the government and its responsible members, the Grand Duke forms the decision-making body of the executive power.
According to the Constitution, the courts and tribunals are responsible for exercising the judicial power. They carry out their duties independently.
A constitutional monarchy regime is the perfect framework for a country in which social consensus and dialogue are catch-words.
The country’s stability is incidentally reflected in the fact that changes in governments occur smoothly: in the past, two of the three main political parties (the Christian-Social People's Party, the Luxembourg Socialist Workers’ Party and the Democratic Party) have generally formed coalition governments following legislative elections that take place every five years.