The Luxembourg Constitution
The first Constitution was drafted in 1841, two years after the independence of Luxembourg in 1839, followed by the Constitutions of 1848 and 1856.
The current Constitution of Luxembourg dates from 17 October 1868. Since then, the current Constitution has been revised multiple times.
The Luxembourg Constitution is a written constitution of the rigid system. Because of its fundamental nature, the Constitution is less prone to changes than ordinary law.
The current Constitution is composed of 121 articles, divided into 13 chapters. It describes the constituent foundations of the State, the guarantee of the rights and liberties of the citizens and the organisation of the powers.
- Chapter I: The State, its territory and the Grand Duke
- Chapter II: Public liberties and fundamental rights
- Chapter III: Sovereign power
- Chapter IV: The Chamber of Deputies
- Chapter V: The Government of the Grand Duchy
- Chapter V bis: The Council of State
- Chapter VI: Judiciary
- Chapter VII: Public Force
- Chapter VIII: Finances
- Chapter IX: The Municipalities
- Chapter X: Public Institutions
- Chapter XI: General Provisions
- Chapter XII: Transitional and Supplementary Provisions
The right of initiative of the government is called 'government initiative' and is exercised by the presentation of 'bills of law'.
The right of initiative of the Chamber of Deputies is called 'parliamentary initiative' and is exercised by the presentation of 'propositions of law'.Thereafter, these bills or propositions of law are subject to different opinions of concerned agencies (professional bodies), but especially to the opinion of the Council of State. After receiving notice of the Council of State, the proposition or bill is returned to Parliament.
In Luxembourg's unicameral system, the Parliament has to hold a vote on the complete text of the bill or proposition a second time within three months of the first vote, unless the Parliament and the Council of State both decide to waive the second vote. The law finally adopted by the Parliament enters into force only after it has been granted royal assent, enacted by the Grand Duke, and published in the Mémorial (compendium of legislation).