Luxembourg is a representative democracy in the form of a constitutional monarchy.
The Grand Duke is the head of state. He embodies the independence and continuity of a state that was strongly influenced by the ups and downs of history.
Sovereign power resides in the nation. The exercise of sovereign powers is entrusted to the Grand Duke. He has only those powers that the Constitution and laws expressly confer upon him.
The Grand Duke has a central and essential function: he is considered to be the cornerstone of the institutional system. However, his actions strictly follow the maxim that 'the Sovereign reigns but does not govern.'
Since 2000, Grand Duke Henri has been the 'Head of State, the symbol of its unity and guarantor of national independence' (Article 33 of the Constitution). As such, he has a unique legal status and a set of prerogatives is attached to his function Powers are conferred upon him by dynastic succession.
The Grand Duke represents the state in its external relations. He plays an essential role in exercising legislative power, and justice is administered in his name. Thus, he has the right to initiate legislation and no law is considered finished or may enter into effect unless it is promulgated by the Grand Duke, that is to say he gives the order to have it published in order for the law to be executed and observed.
However, he has no means of interfering in the exercise of judicial power.
Together with the government, the Grand Duke forms the executive branch in accordance with the Constitution.