The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is divided into 105 municipalities.
There are no provinces or departments in the Grand Duchy. The municipality is the sole level of application of the principle of territorial decentralisation.
The most populated municipalities are: Luxembourg, the capital (107,200 inhabitants), Esch-sur-Alzette (over 30,000) and Differdange (more than 20,000). Follow Dudelange, Pétange, Sanem and Hesperange with more than 10,000 inhabitants.
From an administrative point of view, the municipality is an autonomous community with a territorial basis and is a legal entity. The municipality manages its assets and interests, under the control of the central government.
Each municipality has a municipal council directly elected for a six-year term by those inhabitants of the municipality who are entitled to vote.
The day-to-day management of the municipality falls to the mayor, or indeed the council of mayor and aldermen. The members of the council of mayor and aldermen are selected from among the municipal councillors. The relationship between the council of mayor and aldermen and the municipal council correspond to those of the government and the parliament at the national level.
The municipal council
- represents the municipality;
- is responsible for everything related to the municipality or municipal property, revenues, expenses, public works, municipal public institutions, the appointment of the municipal secretary, municipal cashier and municipal staff;
- participates in the implementation of education;
- creates regulations of internal administration and local policing.
The mayor presides over meetings of the municipal council and leads the discussions. In case of absence, an alderman is designated to replace him.
The sessions of the municipal council are public. However, two thirds of the members present may, for reasons of public order and when facing serious incoveniences, decide to call for a closed session, the reasons of which must be explained in the session's minutes.
The Council of Mayor and Aldermen
The council of mayor and aldermen is the body responsible for daily administration of the municipality.
It exercises not only purely municipal functions, but it also works, in some cases, as an organ of the central government. As such, the college of aldermen is responsible, in the territory of the municipality, for law enforcement and police regulations under the supervision of the District Commissioner.
Luxembourg City is placed directly under the supervision of the Minister of the Interior.
Mayors are appointed or dismissed by the Grand Duke. The cities' aldermen are appointed by the Grand Duke while those of the other municipalities are appointed by the Minister of the Interior.
As the body of municipal power, the council of mayor and aldermen is responsible, among others, for the publication and implementation of the decisions of the municipal council, the administration of the municipality's property, rural policing, management of municipal works, etc.