With nearly 200,000 visitors each year, Vianden Castle is the most visited monument of the Grand Duchy. Built on the foundations of a Roman fort and a Carolingian refuge, this fortification is considered one of the largest and most majestic feudal manors dating from Romanesque and Gothic periods in Europe.
The origins of the castle date back to the third century AD, when the Romans erected a fortress at this location. After the decline of the Roman Empire, the Carolingians settled there (ninth century AD). In the eleventh century, the chapel and the small palace were built, the most notable parts of the castle. The twelfth century saw the construction of the grand palace, the thirteenth that of the knights' hall.
From the eleventh to the fifteenth century, the castle was the residence of the powerful Counts of Vianden. In 1417, it was bequeathed by inheritance to the younger branch of the German House of Nassau. In 1890, it eventually fell to Grand Duke Adolphe of the elder branch of Nassau. Vianden is often considered to be the symbolic birthplace of the Orange-Nassau dynasty to which the grand ducal family belongs.
Since 1977, when the castle became the property of the state, it has experienced a series of restorations and is now an important element of the cultural heritage of Europe.